The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment
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If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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References:
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz
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Komentari
  • Sadique Khan
    Sadique Khan

    So when it will start speaking?

  • Haz
    Haz

    Please make sure you close that lab door tightly we don’t want new stuff coming out from labs 🧫

  • JC Wood
    JC Wood

    Replace the word evolution with adaptation please. Because science. Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "Replace the word evolution with adaptation please." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. " Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this." Every insertion and duplication mutation adds information by definition. The Ara-3 strain discussed in this video has such a mutation, as demonstrated by sequencing.

  • Equilibrium
    Equilibrium

    Can someone help me understand? Because it doesn't make sense to me.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      @Equilibrium ok, i'll try to remember to do it tomorrow, but my brain is turning off.

    • Equilibrium
      Equilibrium

      @zhou sei The video is long, full of information that I couldn't retain quite as good although watching it over and over. So i guess the whole thing, but you can give me a quick summary

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      observe e coli, new proteins pop up... some are helpful, others not so much. or what part was difficult, i don't wanna limit anything here...

  • Steven Schupak
    Steven Schupak

    It'll be an experiment in evolution when one of the cultures becomes a duck and waddles away. Until then is an experiment in adaptation.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @Random Dude Just so you know, modern systematics have bacteria and eukaryote as clades, but not prokaryotes. Since prokaryote (as currently understood) is just a description (unicellular anucleate organism), there is no problem going from a prokaryote to a non-prokaryote. Ignoring this somewhat pedantic point, you are completely correct.

    • Random Dude
      Random Dude

      Bacteria will not turn to ducks. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Ducks are eukaryotes. Learn how Evolution works.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      @Steven Schupak the theory is as strong as explanations for natural phenomena get. your understanding of it is certainly weak, considering you think the theory makes a claim that something will just poof into a something else. it doesn't work like that, and it won't work like that until we perfect genetic engineering.

    • Steven Schupak
      Steven Schupak

      @zhou sei You're right that's not how it works. Because the theory is weak. If that was how it worked I'd be like dang! Evolution, one organism became another one over time, look at that. Proven.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      that's not how evolution works, you're thinking of the kids show "pokemon"

  • Michael
    Michael

    This is really cool, but let's all hope those hyper mutant e coli don't accidentally get released into the wild from that building being destroyed by a natural disaster or something.

  • Luciano Stabel
    Luciano Stabel

    I read about this experiment on Dawkin's The Greatest Show On Earth book. This experiment is astonishingly great. Your video doesn't fall behind, great content. Thank you so much for that.

  • Islam Mokhtar
    Islam Mokhtar

    Can you make a relativity-based explanation of the tides in oceans?!

  • Crypto Secutiry
    Crypto Secutiry

    The fresh ping preoperatively suck because speedboat routinely squeal through a erratic judge. chubby, scattered attraction

  • Beaman Surchit
    Beaman Surchit

    How are you defining evolution? You have here demonstrated micro-evolution - evolution within a species: bacteria in and bacteria out. No one has a problem believing there is micro-evolution going on, which creates changes within a species. Sometimes these changes - mutations - are advantageous: longer beaks; stronger muscles; ability to live in a changing environment, such as one that has had antibiotics added to it. Mutation has NEVER added new DNA information, which would be essential for interspecies evolution to occur.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @Beaman Surchit "How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species?" It is a new species when people decide it is, but that decision is correlated to the extent of divergence. In bacteria, the delimitation is usually by ecotype (by which Ara-3 should already be a different species) or 3% 16S divergence (by which it should be a new species in another few million generations). But at no point would the descendants of bacteria not be bacteria, because bacteria is a clade, and descendants are always in all of the clades their ancestors were in. "Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens?" Thinking that getting humans is the 'point' of evolution is a radical misunderstanding of the theory. Evolution explains the origins of humans, it doesn't require it. " but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution." Given sufficient accumulation of divergence, you can get extremely modified descendants, which would result in labeling the new population as a different species from the ancestral population. Experimental speciation is well documented and extremely repeatable. "We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues" Casey Luskin is not an expert in any relevant field, EvolutionNews is a crank website, and nonetheless the linked article *still* manages to confirm that you can get new information from mutations. And if mutations can produce new information, as we must now agree they can, and if some fraction of those mutations are beneficial, as is necessarily true, then I'm not sure what you think the problem is. In terms of producing complex features by mutation, you can look at the development of placental viviparity in lizards, happening in real time in the wild. "If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us" The preservation of transitional forms is a question of geology and historical contingency, not biology. Nonetheless, we have excellent fossil sequences for most major transitions of the past 500 million years. And by the way, Darwin went on to say: "On the absence or rarity of transitional varieties. As natural selection acts solely by the preservation of profitable modifications, each new form will tend in a fully-stocked country to take the place of, and finally to exterminate, its own less improved parent or other less-favoured forms with which it comes into competition. Thus extinction and natural selection will, as we have seen, go hand in hand. Hence, if we look at each species as descended from some other unknown form, both the parent and all the transitional varieties will generally have been exterminated by the very process of formation and perfection of the new form." "We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book." Much like understand a book is only easy if you understand the language, understanding evolution is only easy if you understand the underlying chemistry and statistics. At which point, evolution is unmistakable.

    • Beaman Surchit
      Beaman Surchit

      @zhou sei I wasn't even remotely making such a ludicrous suggestion. edit: I should have added: Ham doesn't either. If you have actually listened to Ham's arguments you were either listening very carelessly; or your comments here are disingenuous at best.

    • Beaman Surchit
      Beaman Surchit

      ​@Crispr CAS9 "Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations." How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species? "If we saw something other than bacteria evolve from bacteria, it would disprove evolution." Pardon me? Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens? I know you're not saying that a bacteria suddenly evolves into a mouse (for example) but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution. "Every duplication and insertion mutation adds information by definition." We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues and problems raised by the theory of evolution, but that would never smooth out our differences. Allow me go there just once and suggest you take a look, from my perspective, at "Can Random Mutations Create New Complex Features? A Response to TalkOrigins". [ evolutionnews (dot) org/2012/06/can_random_muta/ ] This website looks at the science. For me, what it boils down to is obvious observational logic. As Darwin himself questioned: “Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms.” Exactly. If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us. We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book. But we can't - it simply isn't there. And it's not in the fossil record either.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      (assumption) you've fallen victim to ken ham and the whole "change in type" nonsense. you don't see a fish suddenly give birth to a monkey, that's not how evolution works.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "How are you defining evolution?" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations. "bacteria in and bacteria out." If we saw something other than bacteria evolve from bacteria, it would disprove evolution. Expecting as evidence for a thing something that would disprove that thing does nothing but underline the fact you don't understand the subject. "Mutation has NEVER added new DNA information" Every duplication and insertion mutation adds information by definition. "which would be essential for interspecies evolution" The known effects of mutations, including those you listed earlier, are sufficient to explain the entire diversity of life on earth.

  • عائلة عيد ألمانيا Maryam Rose TV Germany
    عائلة عيد ألمانيا Maryam Rose TV Germany

    E.coli is still E.coli

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      what's your point?

  • OgrAdaY
    OgrAdaY

    Would this be considered gain of function if the e.coli develop a competitive advantage?

  • Lorenzo
    Lorenzo

    Finally we understand why 42 is the answer

  • Teflon Pan
    Teflon Pan

    I am not watching Evolution in action. Because bacteria turns resistance against enemies, does not prove a fish turning into a human over billions of years. You just take one truth and stretch it over billions of years. That's not how science works.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      this one particular experiment doesn't prove that we have a fish as a common ancestor, but it is one small experiment in the grand compendium of observations, confirmed predictions, and handshakes across the aisle between sciences that aren't normally associated with eachother. you have to take the whole, you can't point to one small part of a theory and be like "see? this doesn't prove common descent". well, put it in the bag with whale bones, endogenous retroviruses, and the geological record as it pertains to fossil finds... the picture starts to look pretty complete.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "I am not watching Evolution in action" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  • ukranaut
    ukranaut

    It's not gonna end well.

  • 21trips
    21trips

    All those generations and none of them have have grown even as big as an ant? Great evidence against evolution between kinds of living creatures.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @mellowfellow14 "It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man" about 4 billion, actually.

    • mellowfellow14
      mellowfellow14

      @21trips No and you never will, because that isn't evolution through natural selection works; again you show you have no understanding of it. Speciation is a gradual process, it takes thousands if not millions of years, hence you will never see a ''fish becoming a dog'' or any other creationist nonsense. It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man, yet you are expecting a bacteria to ''evolve into a lizard'' in a few decades? Nonsense.

    • 21trips
      21trips

      @mellowfellow14 Natural selection works really well within a kind of living creatures but you have never seen one kind of living creature turn into another kind of living creature from natural selection like from bacteria to a lizard or fish or insect, have you?

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      " Great evidence against evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "between kinds of living creatures." Kinds is a nonsense word without scientific validity, and evolution prohibits one extant life producing another extant life form. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would disprove that thing does nothing but underline your ignorance of the subject.

    • mellowfellow14
      mellowfellow14

      How to show everyone you have no understanding of evolution through natural selection in 1 sentence.

  • JD
    JD

    That commercial at the end just wiped out my following.

  • Oren Bartal
    Oren Bartal

    Finally we know what 42 really means - It's the number of days it takes e.coli to expand enough to fill the entire observable universe

  • Not Rian's Luke
    Not Rian's Luke

    30 seconds into the video, and all I can think is: "Okay, but is it a good idea to forcibly evolve e-coli bacteria into being resistant to antibiotics?"

  • James Rodwell
    James Rodwell

    The bad computer universally pinch because parade rheologically injure as a freezing shorts. quiet, splendid heart

  • Tungkung Langit
    Tungkung Langit

    Generation 999k: The bacteria started behaving like nanobots.

  • Urban Explorer
    Urban Explorer

    I have a doubt, have they ever checked for a bacteria that could survive the autoclave?? I mean there could be a bacteria that might have mutated so much that it might have gained ability to survive the autoclave.....

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      some spores can, but i wonder if a tardigrade might?

  • Vorpal Inferno
    Vorpal Inferno

    Grow bacteria that eat plastic.

  • Vorpal Inferno
    Vorpal Inferno

    Imagine doing this to humans. Welcome to grimdark.

  • Illyasviel von Einzbern
    Illyasviel von Einzbern

    Did you ask the professor how lethal those E.Coli bacteria are if they were to infect a human?

  • Samu Salla
    Samu Salla

    how come no one is talking about how beautiful that lab is

  • Michael Chen
    Michael Chen

    Just curious, is there any risk of the super-evolved E. Coli infecting the scientists?

  • Purvang Vasani
    Purvang Vasani

    Can we please get a video on lucid dreaming?

  • Scott Kidder
    Scott Kidder

    Wait, but evolution wouldn’t really happen if you didn’t have the selective pressure of competing with other bacteria for resources. I mean it would, the bacteria would still have mutations, but as long as the those mutations weren’t fatal, the colonies would simply randomly generate new versions but none of them would be selected for. In other words, there wouldn’t really be any “improvement” because there wouldn’t be any need to. What would they be improving at? I guess what I’m saying is that your environment is changing and it’s hard to imagine one in which nothing changed. Even in lab conditions, there’s still selective pressure. And as the colony grows, that pressure increases. So evolution is happening in the colonies not in spite of there being no environmental change in the lab, but because of it. Or are you saying that the environmental change is relatively small in the lab compared to the “wild.” And therefore, we’d expect to see a higher rate of evolutionary adaption in the wild than we would expect in the lab? Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted? It seems to me, nature would find the top best ways to be adapted and they would probably be different. But I also ask the question, is it even possible to keep the environment static and unchanging? And environment with 10 million bacteria in the same media is very different than an environment with 10. Even an environment with 11 bacteria is different than one with 10. So how could you effectively keep the environment the same? Or am I just missing the point? Lol

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted?" This one, I believe.

  • Elu Herrahaz
    Elu Herrahaz

    But why does it stay coli and doesn't evolve into a new species of bacteria?

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @zhou sei You can use reproductive viability as a metric for species delimitation, but it is extremely problematic. Two populations might be completely interfertile, but never mate in the wild. Or consider ring species fertility.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      @Crispr CAS9 in organisms with sexual reproduction, don't we just call it a new species once they cannot mate to produce viable offspring?

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      " evolve into a new species of bacteria?" At the point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species, it will be. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.

  • PoM MoM
    PoM MoM

    Horrifying

  • Poindexter Queue
    Poindexter Queue

    Deliberately creating superbacteria... what could go wrong?

  • martixy
    martixy

    SCIENCE!

  • RB 70
    RB 70

    At what point in the experiment did the E. Coli change into a different species of microorganism?

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      The E coli don't change into a different species. The population diverges and accumulates differences, and at some point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.

  • Sahnoune Khaled
    Sahnoune Khaled

    its adaptation not evolution

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @Sahnoune Khaled "especillally by your statement about the definition of species" How do you think bacterial species are delimited? How do you think they SHOULD be delimited? Why?

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      @Sahnoune Khaled we don't yet have a theory on origins of life, afaik... just a bunch of hypotheses, such as 'abiogenesis' that young earth creationists love to think is the "aha gotcha science" moment for some reason.

    • Sahnoune Khaled
      Sahnoune Khaled

      @Crispr CAS9 you had to respect the other opinion im not convinced by your answers especillally by your statement about the definition of species even the scientific who made the experiment didn't pretend that..you dont monopolise the truth ...

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @Sahnoune Khaled I said respond to what I said or don't respond at all. Your comment does nothing to address anything I said in my initial comment. Be serious or be silent.

    • Sahnoune Khaled
      Sahnoune Khaled

      @Crispr CAS9 alright youre 100 percent true and im 100 perpent..false...i only want a answer how the life started from dead matter in the first place..i need 100 % evidence not speculation and unproven theories

  • David Lee
    David Lee

    Ah a miniverse

  • Jean d'Arc
    Jean d'Arc

    So let me get this straight... you guys are evolving super hungry, super fast breeding bacteria that aren't fussy eaters :/

  • ranty13
    ranty13

    But after the equivalent of "1.5 million years" of evolution, they haven't really evolved. They are still E.coli, just better adapted E.coli. They still have the DNA of E.coli. They haven't evolved into worms or another organism. I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "They haven't evolved into worms or another organism." If they evolved into worms or another organism, that would disprove evolution. Expecting as evidence for evolution something that would disprove evolution is a fairly clear demonstration that you don't understand what evolution is in the first place.

  • Climb High
    Climb High

    And everyone wonder how we get to the Fauci Ouchie and the bio-terrorism we going through now. Starts like this right here

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      it is my understanding that the side of the lab where they were messing around with coronaviruses from bats had nothing to do with the u.s. funding (which, btw, was signed off on by bush and obama and yes trump). is there good evidence that fauci was doing experiments on bat coronaviruses, or was overseeing that part of the lab?

  • Paul Doughty
    Paul Doughty

    This is cool to watch however a non-scientist here would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving. Meaning these bacteria didn’t grow a tail or change their physical attributes to become something else. The closest they came was that they introduced something new to their diet. A far cry from physical change. My kid decided to try mushrooms last week but he’s still my son. Definitely cool but not what I think defines evolution.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      that's not how evolution works... you'd have to see what happens to your descendants over tens of thousands of generations. pokemon evolve like you are describing, we can't just eat a magic radioactive mushroom and suddenly grow a super useful arm out of our neck...

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  • Robert Cummins
    Robert Cummins

    Bounty? Really? Bizarre.

  • Taliesin River
    Taliesin River

    Promoting paper towels is pretty dumb. You're trying to make people afraid of doing something that was never dangerous with a very unscientific experiment, and promoting an unnecessary product that's bad for the environment. I'm disappointed that a science channel I respect would accept a sponsor like this.

  • Rin倫
    Rin倫

    So, is this theory can apply to viruses too? If so, people can estimate how frequently Covid-19 will change per generation in theory?

  • Kyle Mecca
    Kyle Mecca

    This is absolutely amazing, I am fascinated by evolution. I want to see more Also I'm surprised you advertised bounty. There is nothing wrong with a little bacteria and germaphobia is indicative of a disconnection with the earth. Let's reduce and reuse, not encourage waste due to neurotic fears.

    • Taliesin River
      Taliesin River

      yes, very disappointing. Especially his completely unscientific 'experiment' to prove why they're useful.

  • Marge N.
    Marge N.

    So this is what will actually kill us all?

  • relentlessmadman
    relentlessmadman

    I also use paper towels but I use the less expensive brands

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      @relentlessmadman there are brands that do recycled paper for their t.p. and toallas papel.

    • relentlessmadman
      relentlessmadman

      does any one make paper towels from hemp yet????

  • Danny Ramirez
    Danny Ramirez

    My question is would there ever be a singularity that would happen during the evolutionary process

    • Danny Ramirez
      Danny Ramirez

      @zhou sei no i mean genetically. Would there be a generic singularity

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      you mean like the mass of a black hole?

  • mark green
    mark green

    What a brilliant universe G-D Created, even a tiny bacterium is programed to evolve, WOW!!!

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      where is there evidence of this god fella?

  • Rhianne Moll
    Rhianne Moll

    Eat E. coli, Jonathan Wells!

  • Арсенал
    Арсенал

    11:15 I got goosebumps here.

  • Rhadoo RootBwoy
    Rhadoo RootBwoy

    Sponsored by paper towels... How about you stop promoting non eco-friendly products?

  • Thom Of Hillbilly Haven
    Thom Of Hillbilly Haven

    gloves??

  • Heinz Dontbother
    Heinz Dontbother

    @Veritasium, you might suggest the professor and his students to use mipar (mipar.us) to count those bacteria. Counting by hand is not necessary nowadays.

  • BP
    BP

    Could you try this with various antibiotics? seperated from each other in the same fashion ? Did you try bacteria from the Ganges river? I heated that there is a antibiotics plant dumping these batches of bacteria in the water…

  • Tom shiba
    Tom shiba

    would be funny if one day thes ebacteria became small animals with eyes

  • Terry Caldwell
    Terry Caldwell

    The smartest ad integration

  • chuck sch.
    chuck sch.

    Wow, this is real nice science, love it! Keep going with you works its really cool. :D

  • Matthew Salvatar
    Matthew Salvatar

    Wait, so if I get the ending there. Life shows a capacity to transcend entropy?

    • To Serve Man
      To Serve Man

      Define "Entropy." And nothing in the universe (flowing chain reactions) transcends the universe.

  • Danish
    Danish

    When did Adam Ragusea start doin science content ?

  • michaelsimkin
    michaelsimkin

    According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something. And this is what we do not see.

    • zhou sei
      zhou sei

      we cannot predict what will happen with any reliability; we know we came from a common ancestor as did a sheep or a bird, but there isn't some set endpoint to evolve into. ie, these e. coli might evolve into a multicellular organism given enough generations, but we can't know what it will be like at any given generation until we see it.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something." So you're saying you don't know anything about evolutionary theory? Fun.

  • erikfinnegan
    erikfinnegan

    Veritasium FAKE for money: big experiment setup to pitch paper towels - microprint disclamer in the end says that experiment is "not representative". Not the the sort of statistical significance that I've grown used to wrt this channel. Oh, and you should always use recycled material or wash. There's always room for a couple kitchen cloths in the washer.

  • David Kellen
    David Kellen

    I'm really concerned about how they handle bacteria... No gloves, just a slight "Touch" in the fire and "importante" the material and bacteria are being exposed to Open air...

  • Tyray3P
    Tyray3P

    It's all well and good until the germs can transfer through xenonite

  • Cedric Velarde
    Cedric Velarde

    1st gen e coli: we cant eat that its deadly! 1000000+ gen e coli: u wut m8?!

  • A Real Life Dog
    A Real Life Dog

    Crematoriums are for organisms that are already dead... Those furnaces look more like something found at Dachau

  • МАТЬ-РОССИЯ
    МАТЬ-РОССИЯ

    *how to create a supervirus*

  • gyamlj
    gyamlj

    This is a highly controlled environment. Compare the competitive advantage of the newest and oldest colonies in a natural world where innumerable other factors weigh in to survival. It may very well be that the older organisms are better able to survive. This is analogous to selective breeding that creates an animal with desired characteristics but is otherwise less capable of overall survival compared to its ancestors. I'm afraid this teaches me nothing.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "I'm afraid this teaches me nothing." Says more about you than the experiment, I think.

  • Ashethorama
    Ashethorama

    Did anyone else notice the reference from the movie “The 13th Warrior” on the fridge? Timestamp 7:50 minute

  • Seven Ligthson
    Seven Ligthson

    YES! Nothing out is not in and everything out is in ;-)) 1.5 (oo.000) is human program given by life = love = what you are in need of, who (do you) are (you)? I took my ABO once more!

  • Christopher Inman
    Christopher Inman

    Queen Elizabeth I (of England) cooked a fruitcake for members of parliament to celebrate its opening. A bit was saved to be included in the next parliament's opening, etc. So now, when parliament begins its new season, the members are privileged to have a bit of cake cooked by Shakespeare's favorite monarch! [i have not fact-checked this because i don't want to find out if it is not true]

  • maruftim
    maruftim

    Mad scientist fell into bacteria gacha hell...

  • AJ T
    AJ T

    Is he referring to Confirmation Bias or is it something else?

  • ZedCactus
    ZedCactus

    This episode was great! Really interesting.

  • Lief Bamberg
    Lief Bamberg

    disappoinited that derek is now hawking that idea that greater bacterial spread is somehow dirtier, and that you should use disposible environment wrecking paper over washable cloths.

  • WowZers
    WowZers

    Imagine being the chad bacteria to first eat the citrate

  • Rodrigo Segura
    Rodrigo Segura

    42, ¿coincidence? I think not

  • Frenchnostalgique
    Frenchnostalgique

    Prof Richard Lenski has the same accent as Rich Evans and it's throwing me off.

  • Azurium
    Azurium

    Me seeing 1% selection first hand: "So that's what the aliens are doing to our universe and what the Great Filter could be."

    • Azurium
      Azurium

      Context: imagine that at 7:30 he's talking about intergalactic species expanding across the universe.

  • Christian412 America
    Christian412 America

    The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "The educated dumbasses still call it evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria" If they produced something other than bacteria, it would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

  • SuperSonic Boom
    SuperSonic Boom

    Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.

  • Michael Kurek
    Michael Kurek

    It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  • Guy Fox
    Guy Fox

    IT'S GOD! LOL

  • Samaila Abdullahi
    Samaila Abdullahi

    I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on HRless who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.

  • RD2564
    RD2564

    Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.

  • David Blank
    David Blank

    So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      "So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.

  • DeadEndFrog
    DeadEndFrog

    well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)

  • lalit pal
    lalit pal

    I see you evolving from young youtuber :D

  • wildstar2424242424
    wildstar2424242424

    A million bacterial monkeys typing on a million bacterial type-writers.... One of them finally wrote the opening to hamlet

  • Mike Tacos
    Mike Tacos

    13:48 A couple more generations and they’ll be growing eyes and noses.

  • Mike Tacos
    Mike Tacos

    Then someone breaks the glass.

  • Chris Koll
    Chris Koll

    I'll bet you I can make a dog "evolve" so that it will CRAVE something that canines would NEVER consume if left to their own tastes(sp?)...

    • mwuaha
      mwuaha

      what?

  • Truther
    Truther

    Are tests like this being done on viruses?

  • FuriousGeezer
    FuriousGeezer

    So what you are saying is, after 75,000 generations, it's just better bacteria, but in the same amount of generations we went from monkey to man? Why didn't it macro evolve?

    • FuriousGeezer
      FuriousGeezer

      @Crispr CAS9 fair enough! I am still seeing no evidence of macro evolution, but that timeline sure makes it look like more of a possibility. My timeline was clearly off

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @FuriousGeezer "it's a long time from bacteria to monkey" Monkeys are not descended from bacteria. "We get what a billion or so years?" 3.5 billion from first life to complex life, another 100 million to get on land, another 150 million for mammals, another 100 million for primates, another 50 for humans. Approximately.

    • FuriousGeezer
      FuriousGeezer

      @Crispr CAS9 Both are human though, yes. I poorly worded it.

    • FuriousGeezer
      FuriousGeezer

      @Crispr CAS9 it's a long time from bacteria to monkey and again to man. Not sure there is time for that🤷🏼‍♂️. We get what a billion or so years?

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      In the same number of generations, our ancestors went from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Both of those are humans.

  • Neiley
    Neiley

    so how long til one of the containers crawls off? :P

  • sf
    sf

    using the same needle for different flask samples???!!

  • Bangs Cutter
    Bangs Cutter

    The human scale equivalent of this would be alien abduction encounters, where aliens continuously sample humans as they observe our evolution.

  • Brad Shymon
    Brad Shymon

    Shouldn't forget all the generations of students who evolved the professor's knowledge and status! 🧐

  • realitycheck2001
    realitycheck2001

    Wait. She wasn’t wearing gloves. Am I missing something?

  • Gary CLark
    Gary CLark

    Ok thats stretch of a comparison. The mutations of a one cell bacterium are quite different than the mutations that would have to occur for an ape like creature to transform into what man is today. I don't care how many million years you tack on to it.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @Gary CLark "viable offspring means to me that the offspring can then reproduce." Then you are looking for the word 'fertile'. Viable just means 'living', so the offspring is born and can survive. "The sturddlefish is sterile like the mule" That's unclear at this point. They won't hit sexual maturity for a decade, so until then it's just guess work. Also, mules are not always sterile, just usually, and the overwhelming majority of hybrids are more fertile than mules. "Do we have empirical evidence of this?" Yes, it's how reproduction works. "Is there any physical evidence to show these ancestral lineages?" The fossil record. "but I still have issue with the assumption that an organism of one species is the inherent ancestor of another species." Good news, we don't assume any single organism is an ancestor to another species. The theory operates at the level of populations, not individuals. 'Ancestral to' usually just means that a fossil population is more closely related to the actual ancestors of a modern population than to anything else, not that it literally contained the ancestors. "We don't have evidence of one species evolving into another species in the fossil record or in todays timeline" Very technically, a population becomes a different species from its ancestors when people say it does, because species is a human label. What we have extensive evidence for is populations diverging morphologically over time, and such morphological divergence is highly correlated with getting labeled as a separate species by people. But using a more colloquial understanding of 'one species evolving into another', we have plenty of examples. Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, for one. We also have really great records for the evolution of horses, whales, birds and several other groups of dinosaurs, a huge number of fish lineages, and countless invertebrates. More or less every major transition is covered. "or in todays timeline." There are dozens of laboratory examples of speciation, and several examples in the wild.

    • Gary CLark
      Gary CLark

      @Crispr CAS9 viable offspring means to me that the offspring can then reproduce. The sturddlefish is sterile like the mule. A hybrid is a hybrid and not a species for a reason. Your definition if I understand correctly relating to phylogeny in taxonomy that classifies organisms base on closely related characteristics. So you assume that because there are shared characteristics in the tree of life taxonomy of generations that the said species have a common ancestor. Do we have empirical evidence of this? Is there any physical evidence to show these ancestral lineages? I believe taxonomy to be a great way of grouping organisms in a way to understand common characteristics of organisms but I still have issue with the assumption that an organism of one species is the inherent ancestor of another species. We don't have evidence of one species evolving into another species in the fossil record or in todays timeline. It's a definition that proves to much.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @Gary CLark Definition from your most recent comment (my emphasis): " a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or *populations* potentially capable of *interbreeding*" Definition from your previous comment: "the ability to reproduce viable offspring" You'll notice that the Webster's definition indicates that it is referencing populations, delimited by potential interbreeding within that population. Your definition makes no indication of populations or how to delimit within. By your definition, every fertile organism is a separate species, which would obviously be nonsense. The Webster's definition, as it happens, is also wrong since it would mean there are no species of bacteria, which is obviously nonsense. And it would mean that paddlefish and sturgeons are the same species, in spite of being in different families. They would have been better to say something like: "a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or populations [sharing some set of characteristics, (e.g. the ability to interbreed).]" There are many common species concepts in biology, and none are universally accepted. Webster's decided to use only one of them, which is problematic, but then again they are not writing for a scientific audience. "What is your definition." Species are hypotheses that populations delimited by some metric(s) are monophyletic with respect to ancestry, and that no monophyletic subclade(s) of those populations can be delimited by the same metric(s). The resulting population's monophyly can then be tested by other delimitation metrics producing either concordant or discordant results. "Now I think that your just saying stuff to say stuff." Language is a tricky thing, and must be used with care. Especially when discussing complex topics. I use my words in very specific ways to convey very specific meanings, and I assume that others do the same. It is possible I did not respond to the meaning you intended but I can only respond to the meaning I understand, not necessarily the one you intend.

    • Gary CLark
      Gary CLark

      @Crispr CAS9 websters dictionary : a category of biological classification ranking immediately below the genus or subgenus, comprising related organisms or populations potentially capable of interbreeding, and being designated by a binomial that consists of the name of a genus followed by a Latin or latinized uncapitalized noun or adjective agreeing grammatically with the genus name. What is your definition. Now I think that your just saying stuff to say stuff.

    • Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9

      @Gary CLark "definition of a species is the ability to reproduce viable offspring" That is not a definition of species at all, and certainly not the way the word is used in biological science. "I would argue there is proof in science or rahter evidence if you want to call that" Since proof and evidence are not synonyms, this is not a question of preference. One is correct, the other isn't. There is no proof in science. "organized randomly through mutation in a way to create vision." The organization is by selection, which is non-random. Mutations just produce the variation that selection can act on. "how do we know it's random" Because we know how mutations work, to a reasonable degree of accuracy. "Could it not be hormonal?" Hormonal differences can cause differences in fitness, but what causes the differences in hormones? To the best of my knowledge, all differences in hormones are either differences in genetics or differences in environment acting on genetics. And here we are talking about a subset of the population with a differential hormonal response when exposed to the same environment as the rest of the population, so it can *only* be the underlying genetics that explains it. "or that the organism sensing something is changing" Let's say this, or any of the rest of what you suggest happens: the question is 'how is it happening in *some* members of the population and not others?' Is there an answer other than genetics available?